Monday, September 30, 2019

Six Sigma for Pizza

Hong Kong Baptist University Professional Diploma in Quality Management Six Sigma and Quality Tools Group Assignment Report of Six Sigma Project For Yum Yum Pizza Group Group Members: CHIU Chi Cheong, Ricky CHOI Kam Tong, Danny CHUNG King, Carmen FONG Luk Chi, Brian LEE Lai Fun, Fanny Wong Ming Chung, Victor DQM03I2-004 DQM03I3-004 DQM03I3-021 DQM03I3-008 DQM03I3-022 DQM03I3-018 Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 1 of 23 Contents 1. Introduction 2. Define Phase 3. Measure Phase 4. Analysis Phase 5. Improve Phase 6. Control Phase 7. Conclusion Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 2 of 23 Introduction Yum Yum Pizza group comprises of 10 pizza shops scattering in different areas in Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Territory as shown on the map below. Staff in each shop are basically organized with order receptionist, baker and delivery worker. On top of these 10 pizza shops, the leadership and management works are responsible by a management team. The core business is to produce pizza of various styles and deliver to their customers according to address of the order by phone. Of course, there are also self-pick up pizza available to the customers. However, this is merely involved about 10% of the overall business. Pizza Group Shops Location P P P P P P P P P P P : Shop Location Starting from early 2003, there were occasional customer feedbacks and complaints which were mainly involved unpunctual delivery of pizza. Since 90% of the business required our pizza delivery, the management began to pay attention on these feedbacks. During the half year review in June 2003, it was discovered about 3% loss of customers and about 5% drop in pizza sales in the same period. We immediately communicated the finding with the Management. Subsequently, a project team was set up to investigate the causes and seek for improvement on the situation. After the first Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 3 of 23 project team meeting, it was agreed that the team would adopt Six Sigma strategy to determine the cause of the problem and implement the solution. Purpose of this report is to present the results of the pizza group’s problem-solving process and explain the solution adopted. As Six Sigma problem-solving includes statistical and measurement methods, by using the stools , we focused the efforts on understanding the variations in the business process and the defects that results: Customer satisfaction Revenue Quality Impact to employees Growth of business Competitive advantages. This report also presents a detailed explanation of steps on how we used the six sigma problem-solving strategy ( i. e define, measure analysis, improve and control ) to determine the cause of losing customer , decreasing of pizza sales and to establish method in rectifying the faulty steps in our operation process. Lastly, with implementation of the fine-tuned process, reoccurrence of the defects can be minimized in order to maintain and enhance a sound pizza business operation. Define Phase To the current practice, the time required for delivery of a pizza to customer was one hour on average. With concern on the customer complaints on unpunctual delivery, sales decreasing and number of customers was found reducing in the 6-months financial review in June 2003, undoubtedly, the pizza group had to take action to rectify the situation. At the beginning, we did not know what particular problem being existed in the business. A project team was therefore set up, by using six sigma strategy to tackle and rectify the problem. After the first project team meeting, a project team charter was formulated based on the management concern and displayed as below: Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 4 of 23 Project Team Charter – Delivery performance of pizza Business Case Opportunity Statement Current average delivery time is one hour for each We currently have an average delivery of pizza / pizzas to customer. Management delivery cycle of one hour. requires the pizza to be delivered within one hours as declared by same scales competitors in this trade of Our customers expect the business. pizza can be delivered Yum Yum Pizza group have been losing 3% of punctually within +/- 5 min. customers base per month within the past 6 months variation review, the sales have dropped in 5% (HKD135K per month) for the same period. By improving the accurate delivery time we anticipate loss of customer would be merely 1% drop and the sale would also be return to about 2% drop. With continuous implementation, the pizza sales would have 3% to 5% further increase monthly (i. e. $81K/month – $135K/month increase ) in the coming one or two years. Goal Statement -To deliver pizza from order to customer within one hour punctually – To achieve pizza delivery time within +/- 5 min. – Since this is the first six sigma project in Yum Yum Pizza Group, the current sigma process level is unknown which have to be identified and improved as the target of the project team. Activity Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Track Benefit Project Plan Start End 6/1 6/14 6/10 6/30 7/4 8/1 9/12 10/13 10/13 11/13 11/14 12/15 Project Scope Main objective – to review and improve order processing – Start – Order received from customers – End – Pizza in customer’s hand Team Selection Bob Black Belt Charles Group Manager Apple Order Receptionist Donald Baker Edward Deliveryman The project team charter submitted to management and was approved in mid May 2003. Right immediately, a brainstorming session conducted to review the business Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 5 of 23 rocess on a high level steps. SIPOC diagram was also established with identification on Supplier, Inputs, Process, Outputs Customers for showing the current situation of the business process and is now as below : Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 6 of 23 SIPOC Diagram – Pizza Delivery Company Supplier Inputs Process Outputs Customers Requirements †¢ Ingredients for Pizza †¢ Packaging material supplier †¢ †¢ Supplier for motorcycle †¢ Printing Company Process †¢ Ingredients †¢ Packaging materials †¢ Staff †¢ Motor cycles †¢ Order form See below †¢ †¢ Pizza Office customers Household customers Delicious †¢ Good taste †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Punctual delivery Step 1 Receive Order (by phone) Step 2 Production & Packaging Step 3 Motorcycle Delivery Step 4 Park & arrive delivery point Step 5 Hand in pizza to Customer & receive money Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 7 of 23 Besides, customer surveys was also conducted to collect the impression and feedback from customers. With these â€Å"Voice Of Customers† (VOC ), we firstly developed a list of key customer issues. On the further steps, we also formulated a list of critical customer requirement as listed on the table: Voice of Customer to Critical Customer Requirement ( VOC to CCR ) Critical Customer Requirement maintain pizza at temperature 40 degree C when passing to customer inform arrival time and price in advance Key Customer Issue pizza delivered to customer should be at reasonable temperature on time delivery packing arrangement concern on price Voice of Customer Cool pizza, tasted no good Late delivery Long deliver lead time Poor packaging outlook Poor packaging spoil pizza unexpected high price impolite delivery manner ragged deliver worker – – – keep arrival time variation less than 5 min. tandard pizza package standard greeting and manner delivery worker in uniform need polite manner when passing pizza to customer reasonable worker outlook – Measure Phase To investigate and realize further improvement for fulfilling the most important requirement from customers, it was anticipated operational definition would be essential to clearly point out the criteria to our operational performance. Based on the current operation process and the established operational definition, we conducted surveys and interviews with our customer and staff to collect data on how we performed currently. Below is the table showing our data measurement plan which was designed to collect the feedbacks and opinions. As indicated, the data were collected from various sources, that included the direct feedback from customer, and we anticipated the right moment to collect these data should be right after the telephone order from customers, which was the most simple and direct method to collect the first hand information.. Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 9 of 23 Data Measurement Plan Performance Measure Operational Definition Data Source and Location -measure the failure rate in maintaining pizza temperature not less than 40 degree -maintain pizza in standard cartoon Sample Size Who will collect the Data When will data be collected? How will data be selected? Other data that should be collected at the same time? -feedback from customer,-feedback from delivery worker, 15% of delivered pizza 1June to 30 June Randomly Pizza quality,, Bob, Black Belt -telephone ,survey / questionnaire ox with thermal indicator and ensure the temperature is not less than 40 degree C on the indicator -estimate delivery time and price of pizza, then inform customer on the arrival time right after telephone order -ride motorcycle for pizza delivery and arrive on time -packaging pizza with standard cartoon box -greeting to customer with wording -delivery worker must be wearing clean and tidy uniform standard C when passing to customer -measure the failure rate in informing arrival time an d price in advance to customer -measure the failure rate in keeping arrival time variation less than 5 min. measure the failure rate in packaging pizza in standard package -measure the failure rate of delivery worker greeting to customer by saying standard greeting and manner -measure the failure rate of delivery worker wearing uniform selected Weather situation, Traffic situation Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 10 of 23 Pizza Ordering Sequence ( By Phone ) Customer Order Receptionist Baker Deliver Order by phone standard greeting, listen customer's order details produce and bake pizza as ordered confirm order details and customer address lan delivery route confirm delivery time, payment package pizza in delivery box collect packaged pizza, or other food items plan for production schedule put pizza and other items into delivery box of motorcycle drive to customer address get to the door of the address, ring the bell and say standard greeting check acceptance an d pay confirm delivery of pizza and other food items receive payment and customer signature on receipt, say standard goodbye and leave business case completed Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 11 of 23 According to the established operation definition and sequence above, survey forms and questionnaires were formulated. It was also decided to perform the 500 surveys to customers randomly starting from 1 June. 2003, that involved about 15% of the pizza business during the moment. In addition to the questions devised from operation definitions, some general questions liked â€Å"Do you think choice of the pizzas is sufficient to you â€Å" and â€Å"Can you find your favorite taste among the existing available choice of pizzas â€Å" were also included in the questionnaires and survey questions to customers. Below is the table summarizing the survey results: Summary of operation defects as identified in June 2003 survey Satisfactory Defect item Operation description level Frequency not acceptable 1 maintain pizza not less than 40 degree C not acceptable 2 advise pizza arrival time not acceptable 3 variation of pizza arrival time within 5 min. cceptable 4 acceptable pizza package acceptable 5 delivery worker wearing uniform 6 acceptable greeting words fromdelivery worker acceptable 7 Do you think choice of the pizzas is sufficient to yougood Can you find your favor us taste among the existing 8 available choice of pizzas very good good 9 waiting time during telephone order for pizza 10 clear telephone communication with order receptionivery good 11 overall impression during making telephone order good %in Overall Defect 21 21. 88 18 18. 75 45 46. 88 6 6. 25 3 3. 13 3 3. 13 N. A. N. A. N. A. N. A. N. A. ( Satisfactory Level : very good; good; acceptable; not acceptable; poor ) Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 12 of 23 Before tackling the results, we also formulated the data in Pareto Chart and calculated the process sigma for more understanding on the business situation of the pizza group. Operation Defect Rates in Pareto Chart O cc u ran n a ce F req u e n cy 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 P a re to C h a rt – O p e ra tio n D e fe c t a s id e n tifie d in J u n e 2 0 0 3 % in O v e ra ll D e fe c t 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% s a y i n g st a n d a r d g r e e ti n g k e e p a rri v al ti m e v a riati o n i n f o r m a rri v a l ti m e a n d sta n d ard p a c k a g e aintain te m p erature p a c kin g piz z a in w it h p o lit e m a n n e r p ric e in a d v a n c e w e arin g u nif o r m at 4 0 d e g re e C Calculated Sigma Value of the overall process ( as in June 2003 ) less th a n 5 m in. O p e r a tio nD e fe c ts 1 2 3 4 5 6 O v e ra ll Y e ild = 21 18 45 6 3 3 = U n its 500 500 500 500 500 500 DPU 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 9 0 . 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 6 T h r o u g h tp u C u m . Y ie ld t Y ie ld 0 . 9 5 9 0 . 9 5 9 0 . 9 6 5 0 . 9 2 5 0 . 9 1 4 0 . 8 4 5 0 . 9 8 8 0 . 8 3 5 0 . 9 9 4 0 . 8 3 0 0 . 9 9 4 0 . 8 2 5 ( Y (1 ) x Y (2 ) x Y (3 ) x Y (4 ) x Y (5 ) x Y (6 ) 0 . 8 2 5 a ro u n d 0 . 0 6 sig m a ) Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 13 of 23 Analysis Phase In analysis phase, we had studied why all the pizza delivery to customer could not be achieved steadily within one hour. The failure rates is the highest of 46. 88% among all defects identified and it happened 45 times during the survey period with sample size of 500 survey. With further investigation on the finding, we found the traffic condition, weather condition, and the familiarity of the delivery worker to the customer address would highly affected the overall delivery time and therefore giving an â€Å" Not Punctual Impression† to customer. In addition, such delay would also caused the pizza temperature dropped below the designed 40 degree C. As the result, the number of customer decreased and pizza sales dropped. Below was the Cause-and-Effect diagram utilized for analyzing causes leading to delayed delivery. Cause-and-effect Diagram – Pizza Delivery People poor communication Machines Telephone Traffic Condition Traffic Jam Pizza Oven deliver not familar with customer's address Road excavation Motorcycle Operation process Not Punctual Pizza Delivery Typhoon kill of baking by Pizza Oven Driving Skill on Motorcycle Raining delivery box on motorcycle Cartoon box for packing pizza Methods Weather Materials For the pizza temperature, we investigated the delivery box on motorcycles and cartoon boxes currently used in packaging pizzas for delivery. No major problem was found in keeping pizza exist oven temperature. Actually, the material for keeping warm, that included delivery boxes on motorcycles and cartoon boxes, all these equipment and facilities were at an acceptable quality standard and in a sound condition. Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 14 of 23 Cause-and-effect Diagram – Pizza Temperature People poor communication Machines Telephone Pizza Oven deliver not familar with customer's address Motorcycle kill of baking by Pizza Oven driving skill of Motorcycle delivery box on motorcycle Cartoon box for packing pizza Pizza Temperature below 40 degree C Methods Materials Analysis on other issues were also conducted, which mainly carried out with reference on the operation process, starting from customer order to the payment received from customer. Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 15 of 23 In addition to the analysis on the collected data, FMEA was also a tool to study on recommended improvement action. The project team had also formulated a FMEA table below for showing the analyzed risk priority and recommended action. Ite m a n d F u n c tio n p la n d e liv e ry ro u te P o te n ia l F a ilu re M ode p la n b a s e d w ro n g o r o n w ro n g d e la y in fo r m a tio n d e liv e ry P o te n ia l E ffe c t(s ) of F a ilu re F M E A P ro c e ss P o te n tia l C a u se(s) o f F a ilu re A c tio n re s u lts C u rre n t C o n tro ls R e c o m m e n d e d R e s p o n s ib ility A c tio a n d T a rg e t A c tio n n c o m p le tio n D a te Severity e Occurrenc Detection RPN Severity e Detection Occurrenc RPN T aken o lle c t a n d p u t p iz z a in d e liv e ry box of m o to rc y c le d riv e to th e c u s to m e r ad d ress g e t to th e ad d ress an d rin g d o o r b e ll p iz z a d ro p p e d d u rin g c o lle c tio n need re p la c e m e n t, lo s e o f p iz z a 7 w ro n g in fo rm a tio n fro m o rd e r re c e p tio n is t o r w ro n g p la n n in g o f 9 c a re le s s o f d e liv e r 2 p la n b a s e d 5 on m ap and e x p e rie n c e 3 1 ta k e c a re in p u ttin g th e p iz z a 7 0 a s th e re a re to ta lly 1 0 s h o p s , s u g g e s t to s e rv e th e c u s to m e rs based on s p e c ific a re a o f 2 7 ta k e c a re in d e liv e ry o n tin u . b y o rd e r re c e ip tio n is ts , N ov. 03 e ffe c tiv e b y d e liv e ry w o rk e rs, N o v . 0 3 e ffe c tiv e b y d e liv e ry w o rk e rs, N o v . 0 3 e ffe c tiv e b y d e liv e ry w o rk e rs, N o v . 0 3 e ffe c tiv e b y d e liv e ry w o rk e rs, N o v . 0 3 e ffe c tiv e c o n tin u . 4 2 3 24 9 1 3 27 f a ilu re o f d e la y in m o to rc y c le , d e liv e ry tra ffic ja m d e la y d e liv e ry d e liv e r n o t f a m ilia r w ith th e p la c e o f a d d re ss c o n f irm d ro p th e d e liv e ry p iz z a w h ile a n d re c e iv e p a s s in g to paym ent c u s to m e r u n p re d ic te d tra ffic o r w e a th e r s itu a tio n 6 n o t fa m ilia r w ith th e a r e a o f c u s to m e r ad d ress 8 c a re le s s o f b o th c u s to m e r a n d d e liv e r 4 n o s p e c ific c o n tro l 6 1 6 8 lis te n to ro a d re p o rt fro m ra d io 1 0 8 a rra n g e e x p e rie n c e d e liv e r fo r s e rv in g th e a re a 3 2 b e c a re fu ll in h a n d lin g p iz z a c o n tin u . 4 3 4 48 3 n e e d m o re 6 c o n tin u . 2 2 4 16 need re p la c e m e n t, lo s e o f p iz z a tim e to p re p a re d e liv e ry p la n 1 b e c a re fu ll in h a n d lin g p iz z a c o n tin u . 8 1 4 32 T o ta l R is k P rio rity N u m b e r R e s u ltin g R is k P rio rity N u m b e r Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 16 of 23 After analyzing the survey data and cause of operation defects, we had also analysed the relationship of the customer requirement against our group available technical and internal resources , that included analysis on communication tools, listening skill, baking skill, packaging devices, delivery equipment and even the manner of delivery workers etc. The purpose was to had a thorough understanding on the internal strength and weakness of Yum Yum Pizza Group. Below was the quality function deployment matrix utilized for the analysis. As indicated on the diagram, the highest score of 27 was found on â€Å" Keep arrival time variation less than 5 minutes â€Å". That meant it should be the first issue to be resolved for improving the pizza business Quality Function deployment Matrix VS : Very strong relationship w w Thermal sensing tape w w Good knowledge of road condition and driving skill S : Strong relationship W : Weak relationship VS Well equipped pizza bakery Communication tools Manner training Cartoon pizza box Good baking skill Technical requirement Good conditioned motorcycle Accurate watch Tidy uniform CCR Pizza at temperature 40 degree to customer Inform arrival time & price in advance Keep arrival time variation less than 5 minutes Standard pizza package Standard greeting and polite manner Proper dressed delivery worker Low pizza price Delicious Score 24 18 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 3 3 27 10 9 9 9 9 1 9 1 1 1 3 1 1 9 1 9 5 22 Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 18 of 23 Improve Phase Based on the analyzed information, the project team understood that the methodology, facilities and including the operation behavior of staff are at acceptable level. The most serious and uncontrollable factor is the traffic or road condition and weather situation, which was mostly serious item affecting the arrival time of pizza to customer. To minimize this factor, the Project Team recommended the entire services areas of the Pizza Group to be separated into 10 services zones. And each shop would response to serve the pizza customers’ within the defined zone. Should there was any order outside the their responsible zone, the order receptionist had to refer the orders to the responsible shop to produce and deliver the pizza by their own resources. However, whenever there was any order outside all the 10 service zone as shown on the map of responsible zone, the receptionist had to estimate the delivery time and immediately explain to the customer for the estimated time required. Even the delivery time would exceed the pre-designed one hour delivery period, with this clarification the customer would understand the situation without wrong expectation on the pizza delivery. As such, complaint on unpunctual pizza delivery should be kept to the minimal. Below were the modified operation process chart with the changes marked in brown and the map showing the responsible service zones of the 10 pizza shop for reference. Responsible Zones of Pizza Shops P Hou se Hou se P P Hou se P Hou se P Hou se P Hou se P Hou se P Hou se P Hou se P Hou se P Responsible Service Zone Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 19 of 23 Pizza Ordering Sequence, after process restructuring ( By Phone ) Customer Order Receptionist Order Receptionist of responsible area Baker Deliver Order by phone standard greeting, listen customer's order details confirm order details and customer address confirm delivery time, payment Plan for production schedule produce and bake pizza as ordered plan delivery route pack pizza in delivery box collect packed pizza, or other food items Review for production area put pizza and other items into delivery box of motorcycle continue pizza production locally drive to customer address get to the door of the address, ring the bell and say standard greeting check acceptance and pay confirm delivery of pizza and other food items receive payment and customer signature on receipt, say standard goodbye and leave business case completed Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 20 of 23 Control Phase For monitoring operation performance, control chart was utilized to collect operation data. The chart could distinguish the process variation resulting from common causes or special causes. It was aware that variation in the pizza operation was unavoidable. Number of factors including material, machines, methods, environment and operators were the major elements causing variation. For easily reflecting and controlling the overall performance of the pizza delivery, X-bar & R chart was selected for the monitoring and controlling purpose. Measures Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10 No. ( min. ) ( min. ) ( min. ) ( min. ) ( min. ) ( min. ) ( min. ) ( min. ) ( min. ) ( min. 1 56 57 58 55 55 60 54 58 54 59 2 59 49 53 52 59 57 52 57 58 56 3 58 57 54 52 49 55 52 54 55 53 4 50 52 49 54 53 68 63 51 56 59 5 52 53 52 52 49 56 52 53 47 52 6 52 54 53 54 59 64 63 53 56 53 7 58 57 48 57 59 57 64 59 51 53 8 56 54 57 59 52 52 55 54 52 59 9 57 51 63 51 51 59 51 59 51 53 10 53 50 50 57 63 53 54 56 54 59 11 49 56 52 53 64 62 48 54 48 54 12 59 49 59 53 56 57 52 58 52 57 13 59 57 62 59 64 52 70 52 53 52 14 52 52 55 54 52 59 54 53 54 53 15 51 59 51 49 51 53 57 57 57 58 16 55 53 54 55 54 60 47 55 54 57 17 57 54 49 56 52 53 47 52 59 57 18 52 49 59 49 49 53 56 53 52 52 19 53 52 59 57 49 59 51 54 53 59 20 54 53 52 52 55 54 52 57 55 53 21 57 57 51 59 51 70 51 52 60 56 22 64 52 64 53 54 69 54 53 53 52 23 65 53 62 54 49 56 52 53 62 53 24 63 54 52 49 59 69 59 53 56 49 25 59 53 50 54 53 54 53 55 57 55 Average Range == X == R __ UCL X __ LCL X 56 16 53. 48 10 54. 72 16 53. 96 10 54. 44 15 58. 44 18 54. 52 23 54. 6 8 54. 36 15 54. 92 10 = 54. 944 ( min. ) = = = 14. 1 ( min. ) 57. 1013 ( min. ) 52. 7867 ( min. ) __ UCLR __ LCLR = = 21. 7281 6. 4719 Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 21 of 23 Average 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 1 2 3 4 5 Day 6 7 Performance Requirement Min. __ UCLX __ X __ LCLX 8 9 10 Range 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Day 6 7 8 __ R UCL __ R Min. __ LCLR 9 10 Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 22 of 23 The above data was collected within 10 operation days from mid Oct. o mid Nov. It was obvious that the operation on a heavy rainy, day 6 was the worst. There were totally 4 deliveries required more than 65 minutes to complete, which exceeded the operation definition. This was still out of our control. With comparison with the performance before the project improvement, it was found that the defect rate was great ly improved as summarized below : Summary of Operation Defects Comparsion between June 2003 / Dec. 2003 June 2003 Dec. 2003 Frequenc % in Overall Frequenc % in Overall y Defect y Defect 21 21. 88 7 20. 59 18 18. 75 5 14. 71 45 46. 88 10 29. 41 6 6. 25 6 17. 65 3 3. 13 3 8. 82 3 3. 13 3 8. 82 item 1 2 3 4 5 6 Operation description maintain pizza not less than 40 degree C advise pizza arrival time variation of pizza arrival time within 5 min. acceptable pizza package delivery worker wearing uniform acceptable greeting words from delivery worker Conclusion Even though it was not 100% rectified all the operation defects, with the great improvement on the pizza delivery, the defect rate on pizza temperature was also improved. The sigma value on the overall pizza delivery of the group was greatly improved to 1. 5 sigma and the pizza sales as reviewed in end Dec. 2003, 5% increased was identified in comparing with the sales figure six months before. Sigma level after implement of new operation process: OperationDefects Units DPU Throughtpu Cum. Yield t Yield 1 7 500 0. 014 0. 986 0. 986 2 5 500 0. 01 0. 990 0. 976 3 10 500 0. 02 0. 980 0. 957 4 6 500 0. 012 0. 988 0. 946 5 3 500 0. 006 0. 994 0. 940 6 3 500 0. 006 0. 994 0. 934 Overall Yeild = = Y(1) x Y(2) x Y(3) x Y(4) x Y(5) x Y(6) 0. 934 ( around 1. 502 sigma ) It was concluded, implementation of the improved operation process was essential to the business. With the continuation implementation of the improved process and current good taste of pizza with variety choice to customer, the pizza sales was expected gradually increased with number of customer increased as well. Report of SiX Sigma Project, Yum Yum Pizza Group Page 23 of 23

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Male and Female expectations in a Relationship

Relationships are an integral part of human beings especially given the fact that human beings are social beings who need love, care and recognition.   The quality of relationship couples as well as members of the opposite sex have, has been found to have an impact on one’s health (Jamieson, 1998).   Human beings show the need for affection and healthy relationships from an early age in life.   As early as childhood, toddlers get attracted to their mothers or caregivers.   This makes the toddler to feel threatened if separated from the parents. Surprisingly, this attraction to people and the need for ‘others’ never change and goes on in life throughout all the developmental stages.   As early as the adolescence developmental stage, boys and girls exhibit feelings of attraction to each other.   Although some go into denial and opt to suppress the feelings for the opposite sex, the attraction and the craving for the other sex is usually very high.   Eventually many realize that female-male relationships are inevitable. Questions as to what expectations both parties have for each other as well as from the relationship are to date a subject for debate. There are many expectations each party expects of the relationship and the expectations are largely shaped by environmental conditions although the role played by genetical factors cannot be underestimated.   Most of the expectations however arise out of social and cultural influence. As men and women grow up, they are taught by the society on how to carry themselves in relationships as well as what to expect from their partners.   While some societies expect relationships to remain autonomous, in the past society played a very crucial role.   In some societies, males expect women to bear them children for purposes of posterity.   In such relationships, a female is respected on the basis of her ability to sire children for the man. Any female who is not capable of siring children is discriminated against and treated with dishonor. As such, a barren woman risks being branded an outcast and a social misfit.   In some cultures, the man expects sexual satisfaction from the woman they are in a relationship with.   Women who cannot sexually satisfy their men are abused and in some cases divorced or neglected.   Modernity has changed the expectations men expect of women and vice versa, as the focus in relationship shifts from the need for procreation to the need for caring and loving partners. Fidelity ranks highly in relationships.   According to (Jamieson, 1998) 80% females in relationships consider fidelity as the most important factor in relationships with 40% of the females saying that they would quit a relationship if they found out a partner was cheating on them.   90% of men consider fidelity as the most important factor in relationships compared to 80% of women who consider fidelity as the most important factor. Asked on whether they would quit a relationship on basis of unfaithfulness of a partner, 85% of the men said that they would quit a relationship on the basis of fidelity.   The study concluded that, fidelity ranks highly amongst expectations in female and male relationships.   Other factors, which the study found to form basis of expectations in a relationship, include; care, love, financial support, sexual satisfaction as well as respect (Jamieson, 1998).   While the above expectations apply to both men and women, some expectations are cited more often by males than females and vice versa. For instance, females in relationships are more likely to expect financial support or help form their male partners.   This can be explained in a number of ways but most importantly, cultural and social factors are at play here.   In most societies, women were purposely seen as useful only for reproductive jobs (which are not salaried) (Jamieson, 1998).   By being subjected to heavy work loads such as cultivation in family gardens, most women especially housewives were left with no steady source of income and were therefore left with no choice but to depend on males with whom they had entered into relationships for financial help.   This puts females at a disadvantage in a relationship as they are wrongly viewed as dependent on their men. In some cases males end up dominating over the females on this basis as males take the role of ‘breadwinner’ and the females that of ‘caregivers’.   This labeling takes place regardless of the fact that, the woman is also a ‘breadwinner’ in the sense that the domestic chores the woman is allocated such as looking after children as well as taking the children to school are important but it is the society which has chosen to give them less prominence. Therefore, women’s reproductive work is not considered as work and is considered as less important by the society and the men in particular. Variations in male-female expectations in a relationship also result from cultural beliefs.   In some communities, women are labelled as the weaker sex.   Such categorization leads to variation in roles and expectations.   With exception of very few relationships, females and males are not equal in a relationship. In most cases, male dominance is manifested in relationships. Females are expected to be submissive and to give in or compromise their opinions or decisions in cases where important decisions are to be made affecting the relationship.   In other relationships, female dominance is experienced.   This is usually common in cases where women have financial independence and therefore have a fallback position. For such women, moving out of relationships for reasons such as abuse in the relationship by the partner or irreconcilable differences existing between partners in the relationship is the common response. In female dominated relationships, expectations for both parties are likely to be different from those of a male dominated relationship.   In such relationships, males expect financial support from the women.   Males also expect sex from the females but they are more likely to adhere to consensual terms or the decisions of the female.   In female dominated relationships, females expect obedience form the male especially in cases whereby the females are the providers (Jamieson, 1998). Females in such relationships also expect other needs of a relationship such as respect, love, and care.   For most relationships, expectations change from time to time an also on the prevailing conditions. Loss of a job for either the male or the female partner may influence the balance of power in the relationship.   For instance, if the male has been the decision maker in a relationship and ends up losing the status of a bread-winner, expectations for the females are affected especially due to the fact that most expectations are pegged on financial ability of either partner. Conclusion Female and male relationships are complex and understanding of expectations both male and females have of each other is a daunting task.   The fact that relationships are both dynamic and situational further complicates the nature of relationships.   However, as discussed in the main body of this paper, social, environmental and cultural factors influence greatly what females and males expect out of a relationship. Reference Jamieson, L. (1998) Intimacy. Personal Relationships in Modern Societies, Cambridge: Polity Press.      

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Choose a favorite piece of music Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Choose a favorite piece of music - Term Paper Example However, the harmony that generates from the two music forms is almost similar since they both have same chords those progresses at the same rate due to the nature of tone that comes from each of their rhythmic beats. Though the two types of music may show variation in their consonance and dissonance, their texture but may either be monophonic, polyphonic or homophonic. In this instance, blues and classic music present difference in their forms such as binary, ternary, and the strophic (Handy, W.C et al, 43) Nevertheless, rhythm in all these two music forms is just but their element of the item. For instance, in any case there is tapping of one’s foot to the music, there is the act of â€Å"keeping the beat’’ or following the structural rhythmic pulse of the music. Other aspects of rhythm are the duration that defines the tone when music plays. For instance, blues do take longer than classic music in most of the occasions. Tempo that is the beat rate of any particular music also falls into the rhythm. When compared, classic music does have a high tempo than blues since their beat rates are always faster (Handy, W.C et al, 52). On the other hand, meter defines the pattern of organization of beats recurring in music. Meters are either, duplex that occurs in two pulses per group, triples occurring in three pulses per group or quadruple that takes place in four pulses per group. In relation to blues and classic music, blues do have well-defined meters than classical types. The reason is that their beats are more organized in a systematic pattern of play that goes slowly and soothes the mind. The classic types look more disorganized in their beat rates and also are rough and noisy in their nature. The beat rates are so faster such that they don’t even facilitate the relaxation of an individual’s mind in most of the occasions (Handy, W.C et al, 66) Blues types of music trace their way back from the spirituals. Initially, spirituals formed the

Friday, September 27, 2019

Nielsen Media Research Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 1

Nielsen Media Research - Case Study Example n this paper the author will present different issues that are affecting Nelson Media and forecast on their success story, as well as areas where they need to improve. The different factors of management are looked into and the possible ways of improvement are found out too. There are a lot of environmental considerations that affect Nielsen Media performance. Some of the environmental factors are competition and customer confidence. Customer confidence affects the number of clients that the company has, while competition also affects the profit made by the company. To be able to overcome these issues, the company has to improve the quality of its services which starts with changes in management and the general change in their workforce. When estimating the number of people who watch a show, the company may at times be forced to intrude the privacy of people. For example, in order to know the family members who are watching movie at some particular time, the company has to know what exactly is being shown and who is watching the movie and who is not. This enables them to get confidential information that should not be available to the general public; it is one of the ethical issues that arise for the company consideration. This is avoided by keeping all the clients’ information confidential. The primary issue in this case is the spreading of all the clients’ information across many databases. The complete picture of the client is not achieved; his/her needs are not met by the company. There was no information about the participants of the communication in this system. The main contextualizing environmental factors are time and weather conditions. The factors that affect the level of ethical choices are the manager, the organization, and the stage of moral development. The manager is the one who has to make important decision with respect to the company. The criteria for finding the ethical decision can be used here to find out if indeed the decisions that

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Key Characteristics of the Narrative Approach Assignment

Key Characteristics of the Narrative Approach - Assignment Example Identify the purpose of the research study and identify a phenomenon to explore. 2) Select an individual to learn about the phenomenon. 3) Pose initial research question(s). 4) Describe the researcher’s role (entry to the research site, reciprocity, and ethics) 5) Describe data collection methods 6) Describe appropriate strategies for analysis and interpretation of data. 7) Write a narrative account. Narrative Account Joe, a fifth grader does not mix up with other girls in her class. She studies in a school that is only meant for girls, meaning there is no coeducation in that school. Although Joe is not very fond of studies, yet she is always seen immersed in books in the free time in school. In the mid-break, she takes her lunch in the corner of the class and eats the sandwich quietly. While doing so, she makes sure she has some book with her. It can be said that books do her no good apparently because neither she participates in the intellectual discussions, nor her performa nce in the class tests is up to the mark of a student who gives half as much time to the books as she does. She has no friend in the class, though she makes sure she has one girl aside from her when she has to move out of the class. That could be any girl†¦she just sticks with someone. Otherwise, within the class, she remains isolated. Her class-fellows think that she is too sensitive, so they frequently make fun of her. The researcher has the question, ‘Is reading books really the favorite pastime of Joe or it is just a refuge she seeks to avoid interaction with her class-fellows?† The research also wants to know, â€Å"What makes Joe have a girl beside her in the public when she doesn’t make the bond with anyone inside the classroom?† To find answers to these questions, the researcher decides to interview Joe. The research also intends to talk to Joe’s parents, her teachers and at least five randomly selected girls from Joe’s class. The researcher particularly wants to know how Joe socializes with her family members as well as some events that have occurred in her childhood that might have a big role in making her what she is today. From the information collected from the interviewees, the researcher has prepared the narrative research report. 1. Identify the purpose of the research study and identify a phenomenon to explore. Answer: Purpose of this research was to investigate why Joe avoided hanging out with friends and seek refuge in books. 2. Select an individual to learn about the phenomenon. Answer: Joe’s parents, five class-fellows and Joe herself were selected. 3. Pose initial research question(s). 3.1 Is reading books really the favorite pastime of Joe or it is just a refuge she seeks to avoid interaction with her class-fellows? 3.2 What makes Joe have a girl beside her in the public when she doesn’t make a bond with anyone inside the classroom? 4. Describe the researcher’s role (entry to the research site, reciprocity, and ethics) Answer: Researcher approached Joe’s mother with help of the school administration.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Heroism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Heroism - Essay Example The theme of heroism find its way in this film due to several factors that range from the courage of the documentary team and the wildlife manager who is Hans in this case. Critical observation of the film indicates that the troll is very harsh and beastly animals that are cannibals and can feed on people. After Hans has escaped the dragnet of three university college students, Thomas (Glenn Erland Tosterud), Johanna (Johanna MÃ ¸rck) and their cameraman Kalle (Tomas Alf Larsen).Despite the danger of being mauled by the dreaded trollers, they quietly follow Hans into the bush silently and when he realizes their unrelenting desire to do a documentary in this topic, he begins to avoid them (Found Footage Horror Films 56-7). It takes a hero to accept a mistake or admit a fact. After Hans has denied participation in bear attacks, the group pursues him into the bush where he later confesses that he is a troy. The concept of heroism can be seen from the relentless efforts of the students to the extent of submitting to Hans. In normal circumstance, it would be easy to note the reluctance or general withdrawal after considering the danger of these cannibals. Even after Hans has warned them that proclaiming Christianity would make the troll to sense danger they went on. Heroism is been to the last breath of the Christian when Thomas is attacked and bitten by a large animal and eventually dies. Although Hans admit being not a bear hunter and giving clear risks of the troll, the spirit of the students does not die (Kaklamanidou and Margaret 67-9). Although biting from the animals which mean other species of troll, they decided to proceed with the investigation. A twist of irony comes in when the camera holder get sick. The sickness he got must have been as a result of the bite he received previously. The troll had indicated infection of rabies and this is what killed one of the students before the next Muslim student. Even the

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Movie comparison Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Comparison - Movie Review Example ew just Kung Fu but the army against which he was fighting was provided with latest weapons of that time so he tried to discover new techniques to beat this army (IMDb, 2014). This movie is based on the biography of Ip Man who was the legendary martial arts trainer and he was the man who trained the martial art legend Bruce Lee. The director took extreme care of the cinematography and the role of the hero was played superbly by Tony Chiu Wai Leung, the movies did not just revolve around martial arts tactics but also there is a family of the hero which he lost during the invasion of his country by the Japanese, then he settled in Hong Kong The fight scenes in this film are epic and especially the fight between the hero and the heroin is really entertaining (Zacharek, 2013). In this movie the director Wong has succeeded in extracting the best from the hero as well as the heroin, the costume designing as well as the cinematography is superb which make this film nominated for two academy awards this year in both of these categories. The movie is such a success in itself that it makes you forget the pathetic movie â€Å"My Blueberry Nights† which was the directorial debut of the director (Musetto, 2013). This is a film based mainly on the kung fu fighting and it is the biography of the legendary Ip man who was a great kung fu master and also the teacher of legendary Bruce Lee. Tony lung has done the justice with his role of Ip man, the movie is set in the middle of 1930s in china when Ip man is chosen to take the role of successor of the grandmaster Gong Baosen, the only individual who can beat Ip man is the daughter of the grandmaster â€Å"Gong Er† but she was a female so she cannot be the Grandmaster so in fighting with Ip man they both fall in love with each other so this movie is mainly based on kung fu and a lot of fighting sequences with a tinge of romance between the Ip man and Gong Er. Tony Leung, who has played the major roles in Wong’s multiple projects

Monday, September 23, 2019

Essay depends on "Drinking Coffee Elsewhere"

Depends on "Drinking Coffee Elsewhere" - Essay Example Packer’s characters also learned to change their perceptions in relation to the people and the world with those experiences. The theme of loss of innocence indicates how the increase in knowledge about the world impacts the character and his/her personality. Packer has used Loss of innocence as the central theme in her short stories ‘Brownies’ and ‘Speaking in Tongues’. This paper will analyze how the author has characterized loss of innocence in these stories to influence the readers. The selected two stories based on loss of innocence are ‘Brownies’ and ‘Speaking in Tongues’. In ‘Brownies’, the author wants to show that anger and hatred that developed in the black and white races had no origin rather each of them did not even know why they hate others. They just show to the world what they see, observe and experience. In the story ‘Speaking in Tongues’, the author has shown how the main character lost her innocence due to pressurized sexual experience at a very young age. ZZ Packer projected loss of innocence in her stories as a transition from childhood to adulthood without any relation to gender, religion or culture. ‘Brownies’ is a story focusing on racial segregation and prejudice that existed between white and black Americans. The author showed that the girls in both troops were innocent but when they watched the behaviors of others around them their perception changed, and that’s where the loss of innocence is applied in the story. The black girls’ troop identified that the white girls’ troop called them names based on racism. The author showed in her text that the white girls did not even know why they hate the black girls or abuse them. It was rather their surrounding that made them think negative and misbehave with the black Americans. Similarly, the black girls found out that the troop of white girls also consisted of some ‘delayed learners’ who were

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Juvenile Justice Subsystems Essay Example for Free

Juvenile Justice Subsystems Essay The role of the police is to enforce the law and maintain order in the community. In 2000, there were approximately 18,000 police agencies employing more than one million full-time sworn and non-sworn personnel. They are intimately involved in juvenile justice issues, they mostly operate locally, and are thus in close proximity to towns and neighborhoods. For juvenile offenders and victims, local police are often their first contact with juvenile justice authorities. The reason for this is simply stated: Juvenile offenders who break the law are frequently taken to the police as a first option, or the police may apprehend them while observing them committing an offense. Youths who have been victimized or whose welfare is at risk are likewise referred to police custody—for their own protection. The Judicial Subsystem The judicial component of the juvenile justice system is composed of many of the same personnel as found in the adult system. These include judges, administrators, prosecutors, and defense counsel. It is a civil (rather than criminal) system, so there is also a significant amount of participation by social workers, probation officers, case managers, and other professionals whose primary duty is to inform and advise the court on the status of each juvenile. The Corrections Subsystem Juvenile correctional institutions are regulated under state law and must comply with state and federal mandates for the humane treatment of youths who have been consigned to locked or other residential facilities. The underlying mission of juvenile corrections is to treat and rehabilitate youths. Although many facilities are highly restrictive, and confinement conditions can approximate those found in some adult facilities, it is the duty of this subsystem to â€Å"correct† the behavior of offenders.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Person essay Essay Example for Free

Person essay Essay The Most Important Person in my Life We all have someone that is really important to us, someone that has influenced us in our lifetime at some time or another and thanks to that person we are the person we are today. In my case that someone is my mother. My mother is really important to me because thanks to her I exist today, she gave me life .My mother is my best friend, my confident, she is the person that I trust the most in my life . I consider my mother as the most important person in my life because she has always been there for me, gave me all the things that I needed to keep going following my dreams. She is such of a good mother. I love my mother, even though we fight sometimes, I can’t live without her, she is my role model. My mother is a hardworking, supportive, friendly and caring person. My mother is a beautiful woman. She is the youngest of six siblings, she is forty years old. She has light brown skin and is about five feet six inches and 160 pounds. She has black short curly hair, which sometimes she straightens, but she usually keeps it curly. Her eyes are dark brown, like coffee. She has beautiful white teeth which shine when she smiles. On her face she has some freckles. Her eyebrows are black and she likes to shape them square .She also has her ear pierced. My mother wears jeans and blouses most of the time, she is very simple . On Sunday night you would see my mother sitting on the sofa watching T.V. When you first see my mother you will think that she is shy or isn’t a friendly person because of her character, but after you talk to her and know her well you will notice that she is a lovely person, funny, and nice person. On a Saturday morning you would see my mother getting ready to go the church, she usually wears long dress, or a long skirt with jacket, and she is very elegant. My mother is a hardworking woman. She has always worked in order to bring money to our house and to give my little brother and me a better life. She also work hard at home, she always makes sure that everything is okay in our house, she likes to have everything organized. I remember that when I was ten years old , my father moved to the United States in order to find a better way of life, leaving my mother , my brother and me in our country ,the Dominican Republic. After my father left home my mother had to do both roles, be the man and woman. She learned how to fix things at home, so she didn’t have to call someone else to do it. At  first when my father arrived here in the USA he didn’t have a job, so at that moment my mother was the only one that was working and bringing money to our house, but it wasn’t enough to support us. My mother was working in a company, but she didn’t receive a good pay, that’s why she decided to have two jobs. It wasn’t easy for my mother having two jobs, plus she had to do everything at home. I remember that she woke up every day early in the morning in order to prepare something to eat for my little brother and me, and then she had to get ready to work at her first job. After m y mother finished a job, she had to go to the other one, and then when she really ended up working she used to go home to help my brother and me with our homework. I don’t know how she was able to do so many things at the same time, but she did .She always tried to give us a good life. Nowadays, I see my mother, and I feel very proud of her. She taught me that nothing is easy in life that we have to work hard to get the things that we want. Sometimes I feel tired because I work and study at the same time , and sometimes I think that I can’t continue doing this and then I think about my mother, how hard she used to work and never gave up. She is my inspiration and role model. My mother is such a hardworking woman, this is one the qualities that I most admire about her. How nice it is having someone that supports you in every decision that you make in life. No matter what, every time that I need my mother’s support, she is always there for me. Most of the time when I have to make an important decision in my life, I talk to my mother before doing it. I remember that when I started working and studying at the same time, I felt like it was too much for me , because I was working and studying full time. At that moment I did not what to do because I really needed a job to help my mother to pay the bills , but I also wanted to continues my studies in order to have a better life. So one day I decided to talk to my mother about my situation. â€Å"Mommy I feel that working full and being a full time student is too much for me.† â€Å"So, what do you want to do?† She asked me. â€Å"I am thinking to leave my Job.† I replied. â€Å"Dawilsa whatever you think that is the best for you or you want to do, I support you.† She said. After I talked to my mother, I decided to just cut some hours in my job and work part time, so in that way  I would have more time to study, and do my homework on time. Thanks to my mother’s support I got good grades, and I felt most comfortable. I also remember that when I was about twelve years old my dream was to become a famous and professional dancer. So since I knew that my mother supports me in any decision that I make in life I talked to her about it. â€Å"Mom Do you know what is my biggest dream in life?† I asked her. â€Å"Yes, to become a famous dancer has always been your dream.† She replied. â€Å"Mom, Can I go to the dancer school that is in my school?† I insisted. â€Å"Sure, you can go to the dancer school anytime, that’s your dream and I support you. â€Å"She replied. After I talked to my mother I was jumping of happiness because she said yes. Few days later I started taking dance class. I felt so happy because one my dreams was starting to become true. I took one year of class on that dancer school , and then I had to leave it because I was too busy on school with my homework and did have enough time to go the dancer school .So since education comes first I decided to leave the dancer school. My mother is my support, she is like my right hand. My mother is very friendly. My mother has always been friendly with everybody, that’s why she knows a lot of people. It’s nice to be a friendly person because you have a lot of friends and you are also appreciated by other people. When I was a kid I didn’t like to go to the supermarket with my mother because she always found someone that she knew and then stop to talk with that person for a while. Even though I don’t like when I am with my mother and she stops to talk to everybody, it is always good to meet people from everywhere. I remember that one day before coming here I needed a paper from high school in order to be able to register in college, so my mother and I went to the school’s office. When we went and told the secretary what we needed she told us that to get that paper done would take a while. I really needed it right away because I was coming to the USA the day after. After a few minutes talking with the secretary, the manager arrived and since my mother knew him he came and helped us with the paper. Thanks to my mother I learned to be a friendly person and everywhere that I go I know many people. Being friendly is one the qualities that I most like about my mother. It helps to know people. Caring is part of my mother’s personality. It’s like she was born with this quality. My mother always takes care of my  father, my little brother and me. She is always asking me how I am doing in school or in my job. I remember few years ago, I was in the hospital because I was really sick .I stayed at the hospital for a whole week. My mother took vacation from her job because she wanted to stay with me, taking care of me, and making sure that I had everything that need. At that moment my mother showed me that she really care about me and how important I was to her. My mother is always up to me when I need an advice .When I am sad I go to see her and she gives me a hug and good advices and makes me feel much better. When I am sick she gives me medicine and everything that I need to get better .My mother is such blessing in my life. She is always ready to pour out her unconditional caring love to me and those around her. Being hardworking, supportive, friendly and caring are only a few of the attributes that I have learned from my mother. She taught me how to get things in life ,to keep going, it doesn’t matter what happens and never to give up .But ,one the most important things she taught me is how to be a good person. I love my mother, and I am more than proud to say that she is my mother. She has been a huge influence in my life, I will never finish paying and thanking my mother for all the things that she has done for me. Mommy, you are my role model.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Personal Journey Into Medicine Personal Development Essay

Personal Journey Into Medicine Personal Development Essay The presence of the doctor is the beginning of a cure-goes the proverb. It is something I firmly believe in. The art of healing patients begin at the moment the patient sees the doctor, not only when the medicine is prescribed. The practice of medicine is a combination of knowledge, compassion and love for the people we treat and fellow human beings in general. Thats the combination of medicine that will treat the patient as a whole and uphold the WHO definition of health: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity Since childhood, the idea of treating people has inspired me. The house next door to where we live was given for rent and most of the time, doctors used to occupy it. They used to see patients at home as well. During the summer school vacation time I used to stay with the doctors during their working hours at home. I had the opportunity to see them interact with patients, provide them comfort and give them medicines. The patients used to return for follow up and thank the doctors for the help and care they had provided. I could see the gratitude expressed clearly in the patients eyes and even though I was a child and a mere spectator of the whole process, my mind was able to comprehend how well a doctor can change another persons life for the good. The interest in the profession took its initial roots from there. When I was 12 years old there was an incident that further strengthened the interest for Medicine within me. One night my best friends dad collapsed, the doctor next door ad ministered CPR and he was taken to the nearby hospital immediately. Further we came to know that my friends dad had suffered from a myocardial infarction popularly known as heart attack. I was intrigued by this and wanted to know exactly what it was and the doctor explained it to me in a way comprehensible for a child of my age. The working of the heart fascinated me. The intricate way in which our organs work; how a doctor can change another persons life with timely action; all these intensified my interest in Medicine during my childhood days itself. When I was a child, my parents left me with my grandparents. My parents had difficulty to take care of me in their hectic work schedule. Even though my grandparents looked after me in the best way possible, I always missed my parents. I used to feel a lack of love always, maybe from the absence of my parents proximity. Somehow I resolved in my sub conscious mind that nobody else should suffer from the absence of care. This decision had a tremendous effect in my life when I entered Medical School. I always used to feel that all the patients whom I used to come into contact with as one of my own relative.. My senior doctors wanted to know as to how I became like this and traced it back to my childhood. Now I believe everything that happens to us has a good effect in our lives sooner or later. My interest in Internal Medicine started growing in the early years of Medical School. When the clinics started in the second year, I found myself drawn towards the Internal Medicine ward more than any other specialty. There were a variety of cases, and at times a specific disease will manifest with varied presentations. Puzzling diagnostic problems which would fall into place with a specific examination finding. All of us are made unique and hence, though two patients may share the same disease process, two treatment plans can not be the same. The doctors who taught us were veterans in their respective fields and instilled within us great interest and love for the vast subject. At times I would think in awe that Medicine is wonderful, vast and challenging. Every day the senior doctors used to have case discussions of patients in entirety starting from diagnosis and treatment of illness to offering support and counseling. The medical students were also asked to actively participate i n such group discussions and ask all our doubts. During my student period I always made sure to see as many Internal Medicine cases as possible, the wide variety of cases always enthralled me and the different physiological systems acting with each other paves the way to list a variety of differential diagnoses as well. Our medical school was always conducting seminars and conferences of which the internal medicine department took a great interest to participate. I had the fortune to participate in state conferences as well. Each day a week, the hospital used to conduct a meeting which included the entire departments and hospital staff discussing the rare and interesting cases they have encountered; this was a good experience and played a role in deepening my passion for the subject of internal medicine. Our professors in internal medicine used to conduct seminars on what not to do in Medical Practice as well, exposing to us the pitfalls they had in their life and how to be cautious against them. Another thing I found interesting about Internal Medicine is that we can take care of all the patient population. There is no restriction to any age group or gender. In my third year of medical school, we had postings in a community health center. When I was working there, I came across a patient, he was a fisherman, and he had come for refill of medication for his hypertension. The doctor in charge asked me to examine him. Examination of his system showed Mitral Regurgitation. The doctor in charge asked me to write him a referral letter to the local hospital for further evaluation including ECHO and stating that his financial condition is poor. Weeks later I saw him in our medical school, he was referred to our institution for surgery, while I was speaking to him-he took out the old referral letter which I wrote from his pocket and thanked me for helping him out. He even called up my parents to tell them that I helped him. Though I couldnt be directly involved in the treatment aspect, the way in which the patient expressed his gratitude touched me a lot and made me thinking that how much good we can do for people and improve the quality of their lives. During my internship period the idea of treating the patient as a whole and not only the disease process itself took a firm grip in my mind. As much as we treat and cure patients, I understood that counseling them and giving advices on the preventive aspects of diseases is of paramount importance as well. In India the disease like Malaria,Dengue,Cholera,Tuberculosis,Chikungunya-just to name a few, are rampant. Such diseases can be easily avoided with proper counseling and for that good communication skills are required. These are skills, I understood, that we gain with experience and no text book advice can help us with it. We can always treat the disease, but I think it is more important to isolate the main cause of the same and eliminate it from the scene. For example- doctors treat childhood asthma, the root cause of the same might be due to passive smoking from a close family member; if we just spend a few minutes in delving more deep into the patient history we will be able to i solate the main cause and prevent the childs future attacks of asthma and with good communication skills to stop the family member from smoking and protect his/her health as well. The importance of rehabilitating a patient is another important thing which I found during internship period. In some cases, the patient is treated and some unavoidable residual problem may persist. The patient may not be able to go back to work, if so, what to do next? In this aspect I found the meaning of rehabilitation-something I read many times in the textbook and regurgitated into the exam answer papers in a new and different light. It is again important to make the patient aware of support groups and help them find a livelihood which is suited for their present health condition. As an intern I saw that internal medicine doctors as primary care physicians doing this more than any other specialty the treating the patient as a whole and concentrating on the preventive aspect as well. This augmented th e my love for internal medicine and made me aware of the fact that an internal medicine doctor is a unique combination of extensive knowledge, sharp diagnostic and treatment abilities; with humanistic qualities of empathy, compassion and integrity. I have always felt a particular liking and empathy for AIDS patients because they are always socially discriminated and the stigma surrounding AIDS even in this 21st century also is to such an extent that a diagnosis of AIDS means social death. During my internship period I saw many HIV positive patients. As tuberculosis and HIV go hand in hand, I saw many patients being treated for extended period of time and our consultants helped them through their ups and downs. Once again I was enlightened to the fact that humanistic qualities are important in a doctor treating patients with such a chronic disease surrounded by social stigma. As a part of our posting in internal medicine department three of us were sent to work in an AIDS hospice. The learning experience there was beyond any textbook knowledge that we garnered over the years and the summation of the time I spent there has helped become a better doctor and a better person I am today. There was a total change in the outlook I had for this chronic illness. The interest in this disease which presents in various ways with a large number of associated opportunistic infections , gave me the idea of making an AIDS Man-a full blown poster of a man with AIDS with all the possible opportunistic infections. This was effectively used in several health education campaigns we conducted from our Medical School. I have always believed that doctors should not be anyones judge-dont think as to how this person got this disease. A patient should always be treated with the same care and compassion, no matter what the disease is or how he/she contracted it. The medical school I studied in is a charitable institution as well, catering to the needs of underprivileged sections of the society, so I was always close to the cradle of the basic human needs and emotions. I was a part of numerous camps that our Internal Medicine department had conducted which encompassed giving free medications and further follow up in our hospital; by doing this we were able to reach our medical care to all the sections of society, notably the tribal population in our state. The health condition is the tribal areas were far worse than I had imagined-poor sanitation facilities, malnourished children, symptomatic but un-discovered cardiac problems in children and adults alike, various forms of oral cancers, pregnant women not seeking medical care, high maternal and infant mortality rate, neonatal tetanus and so on. With our constant individual counseling, health education sessions and poster campaigns we were able to instill the importance of medical care in thei r minds. A primary health center was established in the tribal area in which I had the opportunity to participate and slowly, but steadily we were able to gain the trust of the local people there and provide health care for the community thereby improving the quality of their lives. It was during the internship period that I found there is a teacher inside me. I had the opportunity to go to different schools and communities to give health education classes on substance abuse, STDs and so on. I found the art of providing health education and interacting with various people from all walks of the society a fulfilling experience. To speak to patients and families when they are helpless the most, is a challenge that the medicine has provided. We all know that people become vulnerable when they are sick. To help people take decision regarding the different treatment modalities: which is best for which patient, to have help people take end of life decision, comfort the immediate relatives and ease the passing of terminally ill patients, to hold their hands and comfort them, to wipe a tear from their eyes and an occasional hug for an old patient who has been abandoned by her children and tell her that we are all here to take care of you, has all given me a certain amount of satisfaction. My interpersonal and communication skills were polished and developed during this period of time. I was able to establish a good relationship with many patients who were under our care during internship. They all touched my life as much as I was able to touch theirs. Internal Medicine is a dynamic branch as the internal medicine doctor not only treats the disease, but the patient as a whole. I want to achieve better training as a doctor; make meaningful contributions to the society and I believe that research opportunities are one of the best to achieve that goal. The internal medicine residency program will foster my interest in academics, offer the best clinical training and provide research opportunities. I would like to nurture the teacher within me through patient education and involvement in student training. My personal reason for liking internal medicine is that it uniquely combines hard work, service, compassion, empathy and strong communication skills. In addition to the traditional education, a physician studying abroad will obtain a general global perspective on various health issues and hence encourage broad mindedness. I expect a challenging environment in which to practice and learn the enormous volume and life experiences that enc ompass internal medicine. I am sure that Internal Medicine residency will be a fulfilling experience helping me to develop a strong foundation for the future years in this field.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Biography of Norman Washington Manley :: Essays Papers

Biography of Norman Washington Manley Norman Washington Manley was born in Roxborough, Manchester, on July 4, 1839. He was the son of Magaret and Thomas Albert Manley. He attended Beckford & Smith High school. Since his youth, Norman Manley began to show hints of greatness when it came to sports and intelligence, hints which manifested themselves when Norman Manley attended Jamaica College. Norman Manley set records and gained national attention in the area of Track and Field and later as the Jamaican political leader. Norman Manley was an exceptional athlete. His most impressive and memorable performance was a 10 second time in the 100-meter sprint in 1911. This record became known throughout Jamaica as â€Å"the even time.† His record stood for an astounding 41 years until Frank Hall broke it in 1952. That same year Norman Manley’s eldest son, Douglass Manley, eclipsed the record also. Norman Manley’s athletic greatness continued through the 1912 Class 1 Championships. Between 1910 and 1912, his college team won two championships, mainly because of Norman Manley’s contributions. During the 1912 championship year, Norman Manley had another awe-inspiring performance in the 220 yard run. His time of 23 seconds flat was very comparable to the previous Olympic times in the 200 meters. He was without a doubt one of the fastest College men in the World. Norman Manley went to study at Oxford University in 1914 after being awarded the Rhodes scholarship. The First World War broke out and he enlisted to become a gunner in the Royal Artillery and was eventually promoted to corporal. He was awarded the Military medal and went on after the war to study law in England. There he married his cousin Edna Swithenbank. They had two sons: Michael and Douglass. In 1922, Norman Manley returned to his homeland of Jamaica and became a much sought after lawyer. He holds the distinction of never losing a murder case he represented. By the late 1930s, a hostile air arose in Jamaica concerning taxes, labor strikes, and civil unrest. This would lead to Manley lending his aide to the workers and forming the People’s National Party. Norman Manley founded the People’s National Party (PNP) in September 1938, and was elected its president for 31 consecutive years until his retirement.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Recall Bias in Research Design Essay -- Research Methodology

It is most likely every major text on epidemiology involved in retrospective research is influenced by recall bias. Scientists have identified recall bias to occur when accuracy of recall regarding prior exposure is different for cases versus control (RAPHAEL, 1987). The possibility for recall bias exists whenever historical self-report information is elicited from respondents (RAPHAEL, 1987). Therefore, the potential for the occurrence is likely to be greatest in case-control studies or cross-sectional studies with retrospective elements, as well as some cohort prospective and control randomized trial designs (Hassan, 2006). Since recall bias is an undesired element, intended to potentially distort the study, the initial design of research study needs to implement a proper strategy. In construction of the design, an abstract, methods and conclusion alone do not restrict recall bias. To limit the need for recall itself it would be more desirable to depend on scientific data, as is the most obvious choice. However, research does not provide us with this luxury. Thus, one method to restrict or rule out recall bias is the use of actual exposure status verified through unbiased records (RAPHAEL, 1987). Although this method is most limited as it depends on the unbiased records made available in studies. The initial formatting of questionnaires is another consideration to insure research accuracy and validity scale. A popular form is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory used in studies eliciting self-report responses (RAPHAEL, 1987). The MMPI has demonstrated successful outcomes and limited recall bias with an analytical approach to cross sectional studies. As assertive measurements to evaluate recall bias are in place, ... ...his evaluated? The valuable status collected during the initial emergency room visit presents the most usable information to this study, making this study reportable. Alcohol and drug use remain globally problematic and therefore epidemiological scientists continue to report findings of research in hopes of communicating its findings and finally the overall focus of making a change for the better. . References; BORGES, g. L.-M. (2005). A CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS AS RISK FACTORS FOR NON-FATAL INJURY. Oxford Journals , 257-262. Hassan, E. (2006). Recall Bias can be a Threat to Retrospective and Prospective Research Designs . . The Internet Journal of Epidemiologyâ„ ¢ ISSN: 1540-2614 . RAPHAEL, K. (1987). Recall Bias: A Proposal for Assessment and Control. International Journal of Epidemiology , 167-171.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

American Agricultural Family History

The Family in History as we would hear perhaps from old folks who are still living in some rural areas is a picture of husband and wife and kids living simply outside urban area. According to Arlene Skolnick, â€Å"throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, well over 90 percent of the American family lived in small rural communities† (Skolnick 79) and every one is busy as all members of the family work be it in the farm, or in a shop, or maybe in the home.In Skolnick’s comparative study of the families then and now, she only noticed slight difference and this is in terms of size of family members. She noted that a â€Å"typical house hold in the 1790 included about 5. 6 members compared to about 3. 5 today† (Skolnick 79). During this period, married women were usually home maker specially those who belong to middle class family, but poor married young women and widows worked in the factories. Mara Dunleavy noted that during the early 1800s adult female role include the responsibility to have children and to care for them.She also had to take care of the house under her husband’s supervision. Also, she is expected by her husband in farm or garden labor. The husband on the other hand is responsible for the financial needs of the family. During this period, most men had farm or were working as farm laborers or what ever skill that got them employed. The husbands were also responsible to support and defend his family, and are expected to be strong, independent and reliable. They were to work in the field and to market his farm product.The married women role of running the household and to care for children were indeed a full time job as it also includes cleaning the house, preparing and cooking the foods, bottling and canning the produce of the farm, and provides for all the need of the husband and the children as well. Children had also their own role. They were taught these roles at their young age particularly how to farm for the boys an d how they could provide for in their families in the future. Children were also sent to school and were taught the basic academic subject as higher education was available during this time.Girls on the other hand, were taught the household chores and some basic education, but higher educations were not available for women until 1837. Dunleavy pointed out that even when higher education were opened for women in 1837 but it only offered limited degree not enough to provide them career alternatives, rather they were taught how to be a good wives and mothers. Arlene Skolnick pointed out that â€Å"differences between the American family in colonial times and today are not at all stark; the similarities are striking† (Skolnick 79).But these similarities could maybe only apply in the social climate of both periods. Indeed there is a striking contrasts in the roles those men, women and children that they are now doing and the roles that family members had assumed during the colonia l times. How Have Things Change Skolnick noted that during the civil war period American attitudes toward the family had profoundly changed. The reason for this is the gradual transformation of America into an urban, industrial society during the early decade of the 19th century.Skolnick further noted that in 1820, â€Å"less than eight percent of the population lived in cities but by 1860 it rose to twenty percent and by 1900, that figure had doubled. But the benefit of industrialization did not immediately affect the structure of the family† (Skolnick 80) However, there was a decline in the size of the family though most of the social condition remained about the same. But the industrialization had a lasting effect on the family as the whole members don’t have to work as independent workers. Men can work in the offices and factories while wives concentrate in the house to take care of the children now going to school.Mara Dunleavy contends that during the twentieth c entury, women’s role gradually moved into male dominated labor force and the home became a meeting place mainly for the family to gather together. According to Clarence Roberts, during the industrial revolution period men worked too far from their home and were usually tucked away in offices or factories (Roberts). Men became the bread winner to a great extent of the family while women left in charge of the children and the home. Roberts pointed out that this was thought to have helped destroy the equalitarian position of women in the family.During this period too, Roberts noted that children could now help earn for their families as they could work in factories even with out the approval of their elders. Roberts further noted that home training and instruction was now replace by formal education in public school and work in the factories. Dunleavy pointed out in his article published on line entitled â€Å"How Changing Sex Roles Have Affected the Family Unity in the United Stated,† that during the World War II there was a large shortage of men. Because of this shortage, women took the vacancies as men were sent abroad to join the war.Women took active roles in the male dominated work traditionally. Since then, women’s roles broaden and some began making careers outside of their homes for themselves. Since then up to now, more changes had taken place although children still work but authorities see to it that it would not hinder their education, thus making work schedule only on Saturdays. How Have They Remained the Same? There is no doubt that everything about the family life had changed to a great extent. The traditional family had also changed and even affected by this change because of the women’s quest for equality with men.Many things reflect great changes in the family life since the 1800s. Perhaps the only thing that has not significantly change is the social climate which still features almost the same social condition. Ear ly premarital pregnancies, abortion, marrying age, premarital sex, and divorce were just some of the issues of the past that still ring in the present society. It was in this area that Arlene Skolnick noted that there was striking similarities between the families of the past and the families of the present. Why do you Think that something have Changed Over time?There were indeed some things that had changed over time in the lives of the families in history. One of these things is, with the rise of industrialization men went to urban cities to seek for work in factories or offices for their families. Their farm lives were suddenly left behind, and the duties of the wives had changed from equally working with men in the farm to just manage the home and to take care of their children. This change went over time that women found themselves already in the situation, before they realize their utter dependence on their husband.The reason for this is nothing else than economic. Men sees th e opportunity for economic advancement which their farm lives could hardly provide. Family relationships particularly extended families have changed over time as every one had the opportunity to work. The once conjugal work of the disappeared and was replace by men as bread winner of the family. Children too have had experienced changed over time as they were now income earners too. All these changes were hue mainly to the economic opportunity bought by the advent of industrialization and the men’s desire to improve their family lives.Work Cited Dunleavy, Mara. â€Å"How Changing Sex Roles Have Affected the Family Unit in the United States. † Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute. http://www. yale. edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1982/6/82. 06. 09. x. html Roberts, Clarence Jr. â€Å"The Changing Family: How Changes in the Family Reflect Social and Economic Changes in Society. † Yale-New Haven teachers Institute. Vol. 4, 2007 http://www. yale. edu/ynhti/curriculum/guides /1990/4/90. 04. 08. x. html Skolnick, Arlene. â€Å"The Paradox of Perfection†(given file)

Monday, September 16, 2019

English Literature: The Novel Essay

The depiction of a woman as an emancipated slave has been traditional to Victorian literary period. Numerous novels and literary works were written in the form of a female gender scream, which did not change a woman’s position in the then society, but on the contrary, confirmed the unchanging social prejudices towards women. Gender identities and the related social issues have become the central elements of the two novels: Eliza Haywood’s â€Å"Fantomina† and Wilkie Collins’s â€Å"The Woman in White†. The two novels have shown that the social structure of the Victorian society did not give any space for free expression of the female gender identity. Moreover, by crossing the boundaries of the appropriate behaviour, women did not revive their female gender identity, but doomed themselves to social and spiritual failure. The two novels discuss the female prominence in the face of social threats, which usually appeared in the form of gender prejudices, norms, and gender threats. No matter, what a woman could be, â€Å"The Woman in White† and â€Å"Fantomina† prove the irresistible female striving towards self-identification. It seems that both Collins and Haywood show, how women of the Victorian society were trying to preserve their inner world, the female identity, and their female â€Å"face†, even when that face had to be hidden under masquerade masks. â€Å"Through the use of masquerade and deception, many of Haywood’s characters freely give up their virtue, while others hold strong to it, making them vulnerable and subject to greater consequences. † Self-identification and masquerade initially seem the two incompatible elements. However, such combination makes the female struggle for their self-identification even more arduous and painful. The Victorian society puts a woman in a position, in which masquerade serves the best saviour from the pressured reality: the reality pressured by norms, prejudices, and increasing male domination. Among the middle classes, patterns of employment, with the increasing separation of home and working environment, and the rise of commuting, together with the consolidation of the assumption that a male head of a household should be able to provide for the female members of his family, without them having to take paid work, contributed to the establishment of clearly demarcated leisure time and space for both women and men† (Flint 2001, 19) However, while male dominance and male financial superiority gave men excessive freedom and sufficient space for exercising their leisure desires, women were totally deprived of such freedom rights. â€Å"The Woman in White† and â€Å"Fantomina† are the two stories â€Å"of what a Woman’s patience can endure, and what a Man’s resolution can achieve. † The unbearable strength of the female character, imagination, and inventiveness strike the reader. The masquerade and the male desire to deprive a woman of the already lost identity becomes a revelation for the contemporary reader. The use of masquerade, deception, pain, and suffering leads a woman to the situation, when she is no longer able to distinguish the truth from lies, but where she continues challenging gender and social hierarchies. â€Å"The narrative space presents a struggle for authority that ultimately reaffirms the social and institutional status quo. Those individuals who threaten and transgress conventional boundaries of law, narrative, and gender are punished. † On the one hand, such striving to re-affirm social female authority does not lead to any positive consequences. On the other hand, women in Victorian novels exhibit their preoccupation with their real social position and the opportunities they possess to change this position. â€Å"She no sooner heard he left the Town, than making Pretence to her Aunt, that she was going to visit a relation in the Country, went towards Bath, attended by two Servants, who she found Reasons to quarrel with on the Road and discharg’d: Clothing herself in a Habit she had brought with her, she forsook the Coach, and went into a Waggon, in which Equipage she arriv’d at Bath† (Haywood 2004, 65) The two novels re-affirm the discussed struggle for authority in the two different forms: while Fantomina uses masquerade as the means to confirm her superiority over Beauplaisir, Collins’s woman herself becomes the victim of such masquerading male ambitions: â€Å"What had I done? Assisted the victim of the most horrible of all false imprisonments to escape; or case loose on the wide world of London an unfortunate creature, whose actions it was my duty, and every man’s duty, mercifully to control? † This scream of conscience has actually become the expression of the unfortunate and unbearable social position of a woman. To mercifully control – that was the task of the Victorian society in terms of every woman. Patriarchal traditions have led the women of the Victorian age to the most false and horrible imprisonments which a society could create: that imprisonment appeared in the form of societal dominance over female identity in general, and over the behaviour of separate married and unmarried women, in particular. Although Eliza Haywood implies that unmarried women are especially vulnerable to societal attitudes towards them, Wilkie Collins refutes this idea and shows that a married woman is very likely to lose her spiritual authenticity under the pressure of male dominant influence. Even despite the never-ending way to gender freedom, women in these two novels face the wall of misunderstanding and never changing social attitudes. It seems that by reading both novels, we create an objective picture of what a woman could be in Victorian society. A woman could either choose the pathway of social struggle, or to become a victim of this struggle between men. It seems that both authors were trying to reassure their readers in that the described events and the described gender struggles had nothing to do with their Victorian reality. By punishing their women for what they wanted to achieve, Haywood and Collins tried to decrease the significance of their writing, and to show the prevalence of social identity over personal feelings and thoughts of women. Masquerade and madness – these are the two identical lines, which Haywood and Collins exercise to prove their righteousness, and not to be blamed for being too open with their readers. Madness and masquerade – these identical lines lead women to their ultimate moral and spiritual failure, which re-defines their social position and shows that any â€Å"mad† desire to break social norms cannot lead to anything good. â€Å"The rifled charms of Fantomina soon lost their Poignancy, and grew tasteless and insipid; and when the Season of the Year inviting the Company to the Bath, she offer’d to accompany him, he made an Excuse to go without her. † Fantomina’s masquerading attempts and plans ultimately lead her to losing her virtue, but she acquires a new feeling of something inevitable in her life. Masquerade for Fantomina becomes a double failure, expressed in continued disguise which gradually becomes insipid, and in awarding Fantomina â€Å"with Child. † The masquerade has not certainly been the best solution to protect Fantomina from losing her identity, although in many instances, such masquerade has been the only means to be herself. Byrd writes that â€Å"The game could not go on forever, because it began with deceit. Perhaps if the heroine had seduced Beauplaisir under different circumstances with her honour and virtue still in tact, they would have been able to live happily under the confines of marriage. † (738) However, in this passage Byrd either lies to herself, or appears extremely subjective in her judgments. First of all, Fantomina had no other way but to initiate her love affair with Beauplaisir through deceit. Victorian society did not forgive freedom of behaviour and gender expression by unmarried women. Second, although Haywood implies that true love cannot be founded on disguise and lies, the society did not give Fantomina any other chance to conquer Beauplaisir. Third, by suggesting that a marriage could become a glorious opportunity for Fantomina, Byrd initially denies the irreversible consequences a marriage could bring to a woman, as in case with Collin’s â€Å"The Woman in White. † Marriage, about which Byrd writes, in Collin’s plot serves the role of â€Å"managing women’s minds who in different ways stand as figures of deviance and transgression; and in doing so, it offers to Collins’s more conventional readers a reassuring reestablishment of the social order and woman’s place within it. † What has Marian achieved by writing to Laura’s lawyer to inform about Persival’s and Fosco’s plot? What has Marian achieved by taking over the partially masculine features of being less passive, more mobile, and significantly more decisive in her actions? The reader may approve her for holding sufficient courage to fight against the societal circumstances, but the reality proves the opposite. Although Marian is confident that â€Å"Laura’s life itself might depend† on her â€Å"quick ears and faithful memory† , the Victorian society does not give Marian a reliable chance to prove her abilities and the right to exercise her gender identity to the fullest. Her diary (a textual expression) and her body and soul (spiritual expression) are severely punished as soon as she leaves her home and transgresses â€Å"the boundaries of the appropriate behaviour. † Marian’s behaviour and empty strivings again and again re-affirm the position which Haywood took in her Fantomina, and which Collins was initially trying to take in his â€Å"The Woman in White. † Victorian society does not forgive such trespassing. The punishment for breaking the boundaries of the socially appropriate behaviour may take various forms, from false asylum imprisonment, to pregnancy or illness. Marian’s eyes become â€Å"large and wild, and looking at me with a strange terror in them [†¦] pain and fear and grief written on her as with a brand. † In the light of Victorian orthodox traditions of gender identity, Marian may appear an unwomanly woman. Even when the sound of pen’s scraping is replaced by the sound of dress’ rustling, the society does not grant Marian with feminine identity anymore. It becomes evident that as soon as a woman dares to pass the limits of the usual female behaviour she is forever tied to new stereotypes, and has no chance to return to her previous realities. Simultaneously, none of the women described by Haywood and Collins displays any slight desire to again become â€Å"nothing but a woman, condemned to patience, propriety, and petticoats for life. † Conclusion Collins ends his novel with the spirit of â€Å"a good woman† which Marion represents. Her painful transformation asserts the status quo of Victorian gender traditions, and the social weakness of a woman who decides to break them. It is very probable, that both Collins and Haywood display a growing concern of what a woman could be if a man left her â€Å"to act as the pleased. † Collins and Haywood evidently fail to lead their women to the victory of their gender identities, and seem to choose another way as soon as each of the female characters reaches â€Å"the middle of the bridge†. Both novels start with the encouraging desire to prove that society is tragically and disastrously wrong in depriving women of their social and spiritual identity. Both show female strength and endurance in the face of the threats, which the Victorian society could pose on them. The novels reflect a similar â€Å"kind of tension between an identification with transgressive figures who challenge social conventions and a distinct uneasiness about the full economic and legal empowerment of those resolute women who so attracted men. † (Byrd 1997, 737) With the development of each novel’s plot, both authors become explicitly troubled with what consequences the freedom of female identity can cause. Certainly, Collins and Haywood have succeeded in depicting their women as pressured by the irrelevant and unnecessary societal norms. Simultaneously, they have created an impression of the inevitability of social punishment for breaking the boundaries of the appropriate social norms. By reading both novels, the reader acquires full understanding of what a woman had to experience and to endure under the pressure of Victorian male dominance. Despite the fact, that Haywood initially judges and sympathises with the social position of an unmarried woman, the life of a married woman in Collin’s view appears no better than that of Fantomina, who has lost her virtue before being bound by any socially meaningful marriage ties. Both authors have successfully shown the inevitable inequality of social position between men and women in Victorian era: Laura, Marian, and Fantomina are the three victims of excessive societal control over their true female identities. BIBLIOGRAPHY Byrd, A. â€Å"Eliza Haywood: The Rise of the Woman Novelist and Her Response to Feminine Desire Through the Form of the Masquerade. † The Modern Language Review 92, no. 3 (1997): 734-39. Collins, W. The Woman in White. Oxford World’s Classics. Oxford Paperbacks, 1998. Craft, Catherine A.â€Å"Reworking Male Models: Aphra Behn’s â€Å"fair Vow-Breaker†, Eliza Haywood’s â€Å"Fantomina†, and Charlotte Lennox’s â€Å"Female Quixote†. The Modern Language Review 86, no. 4 (1991): 821-38. Flint, K. â€Å"The Victorian Novel and Its Readers. † In D. Deirdre ed. , 17-36. The Cambridge Companion to the Victorian Novel, Cambridge: CUP, 2001. Gaylin, A. â€Å"The Madwoman Outside the Attic: Eavesdropping and Narrative Agency in ‘The Woman in White’ (Critical essay)†. Texas Studies in Literature and Language 43, no. 2 (2001): 304-33. Haywood, E. Fantomina and other works. Broadview Press Ltd, Canada, 2004.